In our daily life, we have to come across with lots of colors. For example, we see that the color of the sky is blue, the color of the sun’s light is yellow and the color of milk is white. Now, a question comes to our mind ‘Why does the human eye see different colors of light?’. Before clearly understanding the phenomenon of different colors of light, we have to understand the absorption and reflection of light.
Absorption of Light
In elementary class science, we studied about absorption of light. Absorption of light means that a particular material absorbs particular wavelengths of light and after absorbing it, it converts it into energy. It means that the energy state of this light wave changes. After the absorption of light, there is a possibility of lots of options. But in this case, we just need to know that matter retains energy. As a result, the matter absorbs this particular wavelength of light. It will never reflect this wavelength of light.
Reflection of Light
The phenomenon of reflection of light is opposite to the absorption of light. It means that when waves of light traveling in a straight line fall on an object, after falling on this object, these waves of light reflect back. We call it the reflection of light. If these waves of light are fallen on the shiny and polished objects, more waves of light reflect back. On the other hand, if these waves of light fall on a dull or unpolished surface, fewer waves of light reflect back.
Why Do Human Eyes See Different Colors?
The human eye sees different colors of light due to the absorption and reflection of light. As we know that white light consists of seven colors. These seven colors of white light are given below; When light falls on an object or material, this object or material absorbs some wavelengths of light, and some wavelengths of the light are reflected back. The wavelengths of the light which are reflected back provide color to this object or material.
How Do We See the Red Color?
If the composition of a specific material is such that it absorbs all the wavelengths of the light and reflects the only red wavelength of the light, the color of this object or material is red.
How Do We See Yellow Color?
If the composition of the material is such that it reflects the only yellow wavelength of light and absorbs all the other wavelengths of light, the color of this material is yellow.
How Do We See Black Color?
If a specific material or object absorbs all the wavelengths of light and it reflects none, the color of that material will be black.
How Do We See the White Color?
If a specific material or object reflects all the wavelengths of light and it absorbs none, the color of that material will be black.
How Do We See the Purple Color?
If the composition of a specific material or object is such that it reflects red and blue wavelengths of light and it absorbs all the other wavelengths of light, the color of that material will be purple. Its reason is that purple color is a combination of red and blue colors.
Why the Color of a Banana is Yellow?
We see different shades of colors in bananas like green and yellow. Here, we talk about ripe bananas whose color is yellow. The color of the banana is yellow because it bounces back 570 to 580 nanometers wavelengths of light. On the other hand, it absorbs all the other wavelengths of light. As we know that 570 to 580 nanometers of wavelengths are the wavelengths of yellow color. That’s why the color of a ripe banana is yellow.
In a similar way, our eyes see different colors of light around us.