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Cloning | Definition, Types, History, Facts & Process

In biomedical research, we have to come across cloning. In biomedical research, the definition of cloning is the process in which we make duplicates of different kinds of biological materials for the research process is known as cloning. With the help of it, it is possible for us to prepare genetically identical copies of a cell or an organism. In other words, we can also define cloning as the process in which a cell replicates itself without any kind of genetic alternation. All prokaryotic organisms like bacteria have the ability to create identical copies by budding or binary fission. On the other hand, we are creating clones of all the eukaryotic organisms.
what is cloning

History of Cloning

The concept of cloning is not a new concept in biomedical science. First of all, a German Scientist Hans Adolf had given this concept in 1885. According to Genetic Science Learning Center, in 1902, he was able to divide an embryo into two viable embryos. After that, in 1958, a British biologist was able to create clones of a frog from the skin cells of an adult frog. The first clone of a mammal created in 1996. In 1996, a female sheep gave birth to a Finn Desert Lamb. After preparing the first clone of a mammal, the scientists were able to find out ways to prepare more clones of other animals. Later on, scientists were also able to create clones of different cells of human beings. In 2013, scientists were able to create the first clone of human cells and it was a clone of stem cells. Nowadays, scientists are using these stem cells for multiple purposes i.e. hair re-growth and treatments for burns.
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Types of Cloning

types of cloning
Most people think that there is only one type of cloning and that is organism. They should come to know that it has three types. We have explained these three types.  Molecular cloning is gene cloning. With the help of this type, it is possible for us to prepare identical copies of DNA molecules in the chromosomes. Organism cloning is reproductive. With the help of organism cloning, it is possible for us to produce an identical copy of an organism. Therapeutic cloning In this essential type of cloning, it is possible for us to create clones of human embryos. These clones are created by producing stem cells. After creating these clones, it is possible for us to use these clones for the treatment of various diseases.

Process of Cloning

As we know that nowadays, it is possible for us to prepare clones of different kinds of animals but according to Bill Muir (a famous geneticist at Purdue University), it is easy for us to prepare clones of cow than other animals. Its reason is that it is easy for us to obtain eggs from the cows than other animals. Here, we will discuss cloning process in cows. For this reason, first of all, we have to take DNA from the cell of an adult cow. This adult cow is known as a donor.
After taking this DNA cell from an adult cow, we insert it in the egg cell of another cow. Before inserting the DNA cells in the egg cell, we have to remove the nucleus from the egg cell. After removing the nucleus, the egg cell will be able to read and duplicate the DNA of the donor cell. It is necessary for us to zap the newly born embryo cell with the help of electricity and it starts the multiplying process. When this newly-created embryo becomes a blastocyst, we implant it in the surrogate mother. As a result, a newly-born cow will be identical to the donor cow.

Facts about Cloning

While studying it, there come some questions into our minds. If we want to learn it completely, it is necessary for us to get answers to these questions. Here, we will discuss some questions along with their answers about cloning.

Do Clones Ever Occur Naturally?

The answer to this question is “Yes”. There are some single-celled organisms like bacteria that can reproduce identical copies of their cells with the help of asexual reproduction.

What Sort of Cloning Research is Going on at NHGRI?

The most common type of cloning research that is done by researchers at the NHGRI is gene cloning.

Do Cloned Animals Always Look Identical?

No, it is not possible that the cloned animals always look identical. Anyhow, these clones always share the same genetic material.

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